Another outside stakeholder ranked among the top five actors in the training practices network is the IARCSC, which holds the third position for both in-degree centrality and in-closeness centrality, and holds fifth place for the betweenness measure. This actor ranked fourth for both the in-degree and in-closeness measures, but for the betweenness measure, it ranked second. Hence, this actor is considered to be the fourth dominant actor in the training practices network. The CSI holds the fifth position for the in-degree and in-closeness measures.
In Table 7 , five actors are noted more frequently by other actors as those most dominant in the performance appraisal practices network. These actors are ranked according to the centrality measures—in-degree, in-closeness, and betweenness. According to the results, which align with civil service law and HRM procedures, three departments of the MoMP and one outside stakeholder are engaged in performance and appraisal activities within the MoMP: the HR department, as the leading actor; the minister or deputy minister i.
According to the findings of this study, all these same departments are listed as the most important actors in the performance appraisal practices network see Table 7. Additionally, it ranked fourth for the betweenness measure in the performance appraisal practices network. The IARCSC has a substantial role in the performance appraisal practices network because of its supervisory role over the reforms implemented throughout all public organizations.
As these actors are not engaged in the implementation of appraisal practices within the MoMP, they are considered unconnected actors i. According to Table 8 , five main actors were indicated by the others as major actors in the reward practices network.
The actors are ranked according to the centrality measures: in-degree, in-closeness, and betweenness. Moreover, MoF, which is an outside stakeholder, is also among the top five actors in this network. This department holds the fourth position for both in-degree and in-closeness. Therefore, MoF is recognized as the fourth dominant actor in this network.
One of the main focuses of SHRM is to invest in human capital i. Therefore, to sustain capacity development programmes in the MoMP, it was considered important to determine the major financial supporters of capacity development programmes of the MoMP HR department. Table 9 shows the five main actors in the funding for capacity-building network.
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The actors were ranked based on the centrality measures. The top five actors in this network represent the most influential actors for providing training programmes and funds to the HR capacity-building department of the MoMP. The MoF ranked first for the in-degree and in-closeness measures, which means the MoF has been noted by other actors and stakeholders to be a pivotal actor in this network.
Thus, based on the study results and the actual situation, the MoF is considered to be the most dominant actor in the funding for capacity-building network.
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GIZ an international organization ranked second for both the in-degree and in-closeness measures, but third for the betweenness measure. Thus, it represents the second-most dominant actor in this network. MIDAS, which is a nongovernmental organization, is another active actor in this network and ranked third for both the in-degree and in-closeness measures in this network. PMU, which is an international actor, is among the top five actors in this network, ranks fifth for all the measures in Table 9 , and is considered to be the fifth dominant actor in the funding for capacity-building network Figure 6.
Since , Afghan public organizations, particularly the MoMP, have lacked modern administrative systems at all levels. Over the past 15 years, the IARCSC has made important achievements in terms of administrative reforms in public service institutions in Afghanistan, particularly those related to HRM; however, more reforms are needed for effective public administration in Afghanistan. According to the findings of this study, the HR department collaborates with other departments within the MoMP, as well as with outside stakeholders, to set ministry-level goals and make decisions see Figure 7.
Figure 7 indicates that the HR department interacts with its stakeholders and other departments within the MoMP. This figure also indicates that stakeholders interact among themselves to improve the implementation of HRM practices within the MoMP. In Figure 7 , ministry-level and department-level issues are separated by horizontal lines, and governmental and nongovernmental organizations are separated by vertical lines.
In addition, non-governmental organizations NGOs and international agencies are also involved in execution of some HR practices. Line ministries, NGOs, and international agencies are all involved at the ministry level, as described in Figure 7. They collaborate to develop and implement HR practices. In conclusion, this research has found that although public organizations in Afghanistan lack a modern administrative system due to the unsuccessful implementation of administrative reforms, some features of SHRM are apparent in the current HRM within the public organizations in Afghanistan, particularly in the MoMP.
Because some of the characteristics of SHRM include being involved in determining the primary goals of an organization and the organizational decision-making process, this result confirms that SHRM is notably present in the MoMP. SHRM emphasizes the importance of HR professionals as strategic partners on executive teams, thus helping HRM contribute to the alignment between HRM practices and organizational strategic goals, beyond simply regulating and monitoring the workforce [ 5 , 27 , 46 , 47 ]. Additionally, by focusing on SHRM concepts, the HR department could actively participate in developing organizational strategies and making and implementing policies in the MoMP.
From a stakeholder theory perspective on human resource management, our study empirically shows that the HR department of the MoMP incorporates and addresses not only those concerns of insider MoMP stakeholders, but also those of its outside stakeholders—such as non-profit and international organizations—in making and implementing its main HR practices. Regarding our future research agenda exploring the role of contexts and situations in the HRM-to-performance relationships [ 48 , 49 ], we need to examine how such connectedness between the HR department and other stakeholders in the formation and implementation of HR policies could affect organizational long-term effectiveness and sustainability.
Then, we must identify which specific structural contexts or configurations of relationships among these actors could lead to higher organizational performance. Author Contributions K. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Figure 1. Organizational goal-setting network. Figure 2. Recruitment practices network. Figure 3.
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Training practices network. Figure 4. Performance appraisal practices network. Figure 5. Reward practices network. Figure 6. Funding for capacity-building network. Figure 7. Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Acronym list for departments and organizations. Table 4. Key actors in the organizational goal-setting network. Table 5. Major actors in the recruitment practices network. Table 6. Major actors in the training practices network. Table 7. Key actors in the performance appraisal practices network. Table 8.
Never show this again. Share Link. Focus of Analysis. Developing linkages between HRM practices and organizational strategies, and having an impact on organizational performance. Scope of Analysis. Micro and fragmented view pursuing local optimization of individual HRM practices. Macro and comprehensive view pursuing global optimization through the vertical and horizontal integration of HRM practices.
Span of Time. Short-term problem-solving processes. Learn more. In this study, we expand upon prior conceptualizations of fit within the literature on strategic human resources HR to include the fit of HCHR with other aspects of the people management system. Specifically, we hypothesize a variety of relationships that may occur e.
Conversely, when a firm does not invest in either, performance is lowest and turnover highest.